# Physics (Grades 9–12) Subtest 2

## Subarea III. Kinetic Theory and Contemporary Physics

0015
Demonstrate knowledge of thermodynamics and the kinetic theory of matter.

- solving problems involving mass, volume, density, temperature, and heat capacity of a solid, liquid, or gas at constant pressure
- describing the changes in pressure, temperature, and volume of an ideal gas
- using the first law of thermodynamics to explain and predict the final temperature of a given thermally isolated system and the transfer of heat into or out of a given system
- using the first law of thermodynamics to explain and predict the thermal efficiency and the changes in pressure, temperature, and volume of a monatomic ideal gas operating in a Carnot cycle
- using the second law of thermodynamics to explain why energy flows from hot objects to cold objects
- using the kinetic-molecular model of matter to explain common physical changes (e.g., changes in temperature or pressure of a gas, phase changes)

0016
Demonstrate knowledge of the fundamental principles of special relativity and atomic and subatomic physics.

- using words, diagrams, and mathematical relationships to describe time dilation, length contraction, and momentum and energy of an object at a given velocity
- demonstrating knowledge of measurements and calculations used to detect nuclear radiation in the environment
- describing the basic atomic and subatomic constituents of matter and their properties
- using conservation principles to explain observed changes in matter and energy in a given nuclear process
- using the standard model to explain qualitatively the observed interactions between atomic or subatomic particles in simple situations

0017
Demonstrate knowledge of the fundamental principles of quantum physics.

- demonstrating knowledge of measurements and calculations used to analyze the emission spectrum of a given gas
- using the quantum nature of light and matter and the conservation of energy and momentum to explain qualitatively the observed interaction between photons and matter in a given situation
- using the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to predict the lower limit of size, momentum, energy, or time expected in a given atomic or subatomic process
- describing the electrical conductivity of a given conductor, insulator, or semiconductor in terms of energy bands and levels