# Early Childhood Education (Birth to Grade 3) Subtest 1

## Subarea II. Mathematics Learning

0007
Understand the central concepts and tools of inquiry for teaching mathematics.

- demonstrating knowledge of central concepts, processes, and skills related to the various areas of mathematics (e.g., numbers and numeration, measurement, geometry, probability, algebra)
- applying knowledge of strategies for helping children express mathematical ideas; symbolize phenomena and relationships; and represent, record, and communicate quantitative information and problem solving (e.g., through the use of concrete objects, counters, charts, and graphs)
- demonstrating knowledge of how to select and create a variety of developmentally appropriate resources and materials (e.g., everyday objects, such as shells and buttons; base-ten blocks; cut-out shapes) for counting, sorting, and studying patterns and mathematical relationships
- applying knowledge of how to use various experiences (e.g., field trips, science experiments, cooking and snack times, sports, games, reading) as opportunities for developing children's understanding of math and increasing their ability to apply math to everyday problems

0008
Understand how to facilitate learning in mathematics.

- applying knowledge of developmentally appropriate learning experiences that encourage children's use and construction of numeracy skills (e.g., by incorporating counting into play activities and daily routines)
- applying knowledge of how children learn mathematics to build environments in which children can construct their own mathematical knowledge and to guide instruction that develops children's understanding of mathematical concepts and skills (e.g., related to number sense, number systems, geometry, and measurement)
- demonstrating knowledge of strategies for helping children experience math as a way to explore and solve problems in their environment through open-ended work that includes child-invented strategies in the context of various problems, games, and authentic situations
- applying knowledge of how to ask questions to clarify how children perceive a problem, develop a strategy, and understand different approaches to reasoning and thinking in mathematics
- demonstrating knowledge of how to use formal and informal assessment strategies to plan, design, and implement developmentally appropriate learning experiences in mathematics (e.g., identifying individual strengths and needs in mathematics, building on previous mathematical learning, providing appropriately challenging mathematical activities for individual children)
- applying knowledge of strategies (e.g., differentiated instruction, interventions, enrichment) to address the assessed needs of individual students (e.g., English learners [ELs], students with disabilities, students who are gifted and talented) in facilitating learning in mathematics