# Mathematics (Grades 5–12) Subtest 2

## Subarea II. Data, Probability, and Discrete Math

0011
Apply knowledge of the collection, presentation, and analysis of data.

- devising a plan for collecting data using appropriate sampling techniques
- selecting an effective format for organizing and describing data distributions
- interpreting data presented in a variety of formats
- applying descriptive statistics (e.g., measures of central tendency, variation) to data
- applying inferential statistics (e.g., confidence intervals, statistical significance) and concepts of validity and reliability

0012
Understand the principles of probability.

- analyzing the relationship between randomness and sampling methods in making statistical claims about populations
- analyzing situations and determining probabilities using a variety of graphic representations (e.g., area models, two-way frequency tables, tree diagrams, Venn diagrams)
- determining and interpreting the probabilities of simple and compound events (e.g., independent, conditional, mutually exclusive) using counting principles and the concept of sample space
- estimating probabilities based on data collection, sampling, experiments, and simulations
- applying discrete and continuous probability distributions (e.g., uniform, binomial, normal) to make inferences about a population

0013
Understand the processes and applications of discrete mathematics.

- applying systematic counting techniques (e.g., combinations, permutations) to represent and solve problems
- applying symbolic logic (e.g., if/then, if and only if)
- performing arithmetic operations on matrices, including the use of inverses, determinants, and scalars
- applying a variety of models (e.g., vertex-edge graphs, trees, arrays) to solve problems